Regional Notes 2018.04.13

Indonesia’s newest unicorn now wants to take on the big boys

Indonesia has an e-commerce market that McKinsey & Co. says can be one of the fastest-growing in the world, part of a digital economy adding $150 billion a year to gross domestic product by 2025.

Internet businesses present an attractive alternative to consumers struggling with inflation and worsening traffic congestion. Bukalapak’s aim is to profit by bridging between buyers and sellers scattered across more than 700 islands.

Pharmaniaga’s Indonesian business ‘doing very well’

“There are currently no vaccine plants in Malaysia. We are on the right track to make sure that the facility is made available. We are currently in the process of doing feasibility studies. We expect to have our first commercial batch by 2024,” Farshila said, adding that the plant would be ready between 2020 and 2022.

Moving forward, Pharmaniaga also plans to continue reducing its dependency on its concession business, which contributes 49% to total earnings currently. It plans to do this by having a better share in the private sector.

“We are also now aggressively registering our products in the EU region. We have managed to register two products so far. EU has a different set of standards but we are in compliance with that,” she said.

Pharmaniaga currently has more than 200 products, with more than 60 of them halal-certified. According to its annual report, the group expects to receive halal certification for more than 150 pharmaceutical products by the end of 2019.

The pharmaceutical group has a 10-year concession agreement with the health ministry, which began on Dec 1, 2009. The concession enables the group to supply and distribute pharmaceutical products to medical institutions under the ministry via its logistics and distribution division until 2019.

HKMA intervenes to buy local currency, first time since ’05

With record foreign-exchange reserves, the HKMA is in a strong position to defend its city’s currency, and there’s no evidence that the trading band is under sustained speculative attack. The authority’s deputy chief executive Howard Lee said Friday morning that the banking system has ample liquidity and can cope with capital outflows, which are within expectation. He said interest rates are likely to rise incrementally and gradually.

The intervention is still significant because the HKMA’s purchases have the potential to boost borrowing costs by draining liquidity. That would signal the end of an era of ultra-cheap money that made Hong Kong the world’s least affordable market for housing and propelled equities to all-time highs.

Singapore favors ‘organic’ policy in move toward open banking

The transition towards “open banking” can be more successful if it takes place without the regulator mandating action, said David Hardoon, Chief Data Officer at the Monetary Authority of Singapore. “You can come and say ‘thou shall do it’ but then nothing happens effectively,” Hardoon said in a Wednesday interview.

The MAS’s policy differs from the approach taken in Europe and Japan, where regulators have set deadlines for banks to give access to their client data to rivals and to fintech firms. In Europe, banks have until 2019 to comply with the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2), which obliges them to share client account data.


BNM governor urges industry players to drive RPP promotion

“One such area is through the publication of open application programming interfaces, better known as open APIs. Based on our interaction with the banking community, there is interest for this among our banks. BNM’s survey last year indicated that more than 50 per cent of banks in Malaysia view open API as a high priority. Thus the industry should leverage on open API to facilitate collaboration with financial technology firms to introduce innovations and facilitate new use cases to enhance the RPP’s value proposition to businesses and consumers.”

“Of the Malaysian adult population of 24 million, we estimate that about 10 million do not use online banking, while two million remain unbanked. We look to the industry, both banks and non-banks, to come up with new and imaginative ways to accelerate the onboarding of these underbanked and unbanked segments of our society.”

Curated Insights 2018.03.18

Remember to look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see, and wonder about what makes the universe exist. Be curious. And however difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do, and succeed at. It matters that you don't just give up. -- Steven Hawking (1942-2018)

An Apple R&D bonanza

Much of this focus mantra is driven by the fact that Jony Ive and his Industrial Design group oversee Apple’s product vision and the user experience found with Apple products. With only 20 or so members, Jony and team can only do so much at any given moment. In a way, Apple’s organizational and leadership structure serve as safeguards preventing Apple from spreading itself too thin and doing too much. Instead of trying to expand the design team in order to work on more products, Apple’s strategy appears to be to do the opposite and place bigger bets on a few products.

These bigger bets come in the form of owning the core technologies powering Apple devices. Apple wants to reduce dependency on others. We are quickly moving to the point at which every Apple product will be powered by core technologies developed in-house. Such a reality would have been a pipe dream just a few years ago. Apple believes this strategy will give them an advantage in the marketplace. It’s a new twist to the Alan Kay line about “people who are really serious about software should make their own hardware.” We are moving to the point at which companies serious about software should design their own silicon. Having $285 billion of cash on the balance sheet gives Apple the freedom to pursue this ambitious goal. It is this motivation to control more of the user experience while pursuing new industries to enter that is driving the remarkable increase in Apple R&D expenditures.


Apple goes from villain to coveted client with this Finnish firm

Created through a merger of Sweden’s Stora AB and Finland’s Enso Oyj in 1998, the company has spent billions shifting from the declining paper business — as people increasingly switched to digital from printed newspapers — to focusing on innovative wrappings made from tree and plant fibers. More than a third of its sales now come from consumer board and packaging solutions, up from a fifth two decades ago.

Apple has undergone its own shift, away from plastic packaging. For its recent iPhone 8 launch, Apple used a fiber-alternative instead of the polypropylene wrap around the power adapter. The packaging for the iPhone 7 used 84 percent less plastic than the previous version.


Intel fights for its future

“…Broadcom is already an Apple parts supplier, and it wouldn’t want to jeopardize a good relationship with a negotiation over royalties. The exact percentage that Qualcomm charges in royalties is of the utmost importance to a standalone Qualcomm…But for a merged Broadcom-Qualcomm, the exact amount of the royalty would be less important than a good working relationship with Apple.”

If the dispute is settled, Intel loses its wireless modems deal with Apple. No mobile CPUs + no modems = nothing of substance. Broadcom would be in charge — they would hold all the cards.


Google wants to impose order on India’s street address chaos

Google is tackling the project as part of its own search for the next billion users. Non-standard addresses now increase the costs of running all types of commerce from ride-hailing to online retailing and food delivery. Plus Codes — in a ‘6-character + city’ format — can be generated and shared by anyone on Google Maps, while apps that use location services can incorporate those codes on their own platforms. And a user can enter the Plus Code into searches to call up a location. Google Maps is also adding voice navigation in six more Indian languages, after introducing Hindi three years ago.

WhatsApp could shake up digital payments in India

At stake is an Indian digital payments market that Credit Suisse Group AG estimates could be worth $1 trillion within five years and has homegrown and global players jostling for dominance. WhatsApp joins Google, Alibaba-backed Paytm, a unit of local e-commerce leader Flipkart and dozens of others already vying for customers as smartphone adoption surges. Mobile payments caught fire at the end of 2016 when the government’s demonetization temporarily took 86 percent of all paper currency out of circulation to tackle corruption.

“WhatsApp is likely to change the digital payments scenario by cannibalizing other wallets’ users and adding new converts,” said Satish Meena, an analyst at Forrester Inc. “Its base of 200 million users, a daily active usage that’s about 20 times higher than Paytm’s, and the fact that Indian users spend a lot more time on WhatsApp than even on parent Facebook has huge advantages,” said Meena.


Amazon turbocharged Audible’s domination of audiobooks

Audible accounts for about 41 percent of all audiobooks sold, including digital and physical formats, according to researcher Codex Group LLC. Amazon also sells audiobooks directly through its website and, with Audible, accounts for more than half the market. Audible doesn’t disclose financial information, but says its annual subscriber growth is in double digits. Most customers pay $15 for a monthly subscription that comes with a single audiobook. (A la carte, they often cost more than $20.) The company’s library includes 400,000 titles.


How Amazon’s bottomless appetite became corporate America’s nightmare

For many companies, perhaps what’s scariest is that Amazon has lots of room to grow, even in retail. In the U.S., more than 90 percent of all retail sales still happen in physical stores. In some big categories, including home furnishings, ­personal-care products, toys, and food, the brick-and-­mortar numbers are even higher. As the share of online shopping continues to increase, Amazon seems likely to benefit the most. It’s responsible for roughly 44¢ of every dollar Americans spend online, and it’s now mixing in retail stores.

Amazon is far from invulnerable. All the same old red flags are there—a puny 2.7 percent e-commerce profit in North America, massive outlays to establish delivery routes abroad—but few are paying attention. Anyone buying a share of Amazon stock today is agreeing to pay upfront for the next 180 years of profit. By one measure, it’s generating far less cash than investors believe. And its biggest risk may be the fear of its power in Washington, New York, and Brussels, a possible prelude to regulatory crackdown.


Netflix’s secrets to success: Six cell towers, dubbing and more

Why Netflix almost never goes down. The company’s service achieved an availability rate of 99.97% in 2017, according to Netflix engineering director Katharina Probst. Part of that is due to the fact that Netflix learned from outages early on, and now uses Amazon’s AWS data centers across three regions. When one of those regions does go down, Netflix automatically redirects all of its traffic to the two other regions.

In fact, the company even tests this fall-back regularly by just taking a region offline itself — something the company calls chaos engineering. “We intentionally introduce chaos into our systems,” explained Probst. Up until recently, it took Netflix up to an hour to successfully redirect all requests in case of such a massive failure. More recently, the company was able to bring that time down to less than 10 minutes.

Amex to woo retailers with biggest fee cut in 20 years

At a presentation for investors in New York last week, the company said the global average of the fees it charges merchants — known as its discount rate — would decline five or six basis points this year, to about 2.37 per cent. Each basis point is equivalent to about 11 cents of earnings per share, said Don Fandetti of Wells Fargo Securities.

The fee cuts for 2018, which are about double previous guidance, are the latest sign of competitive and regulatory pressures on the biggest US consumer finance company by market value. American Express is facing questions from Wall Street about competition from US banks, which use the rival payment networks Visa or MasterCard. Big-spending Americans have flocked to premium cards issued by banks.


SoftBank looks to invade Wall Street’s turf

Until recently, SoftBank’s fledgling investment arm was little more than a group of analysts in Tokyo and London sifting through possible deals. Buying Fortress provided the group with a template to use as it moved to becoming an actual institution, with a formal investment committee, compliance department, trading desk and investor relations unit. The new entity is now 1,000 people strong.


How China’s Huawei killed $117 billion Broadcom deal

Huawei uses Broadcom’s chips in networking products such as switches that direct data traffic between connected computers. Qualcomm also works with Huawei. The two said on Feb. 21 they completed testing on technology that advances faster 5G mobile services. Under one envisioned scenario, wireless carriers may be forced to turn to Huawei or other Chinese companies for cutting-edge telecoms gear. That’s unacceptable for a U.S. government that, concerned about the security of Huawei’s gear, has already blocked the sale of the Chinese company’s smartphones on American carriers’ networks.

Government officials and industry executives have long harbored suspicions that the closely held Huawei works primarily for Chinese government interests, especially as it sells increasing amounts of critical telecoms infrastructure to Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

WordPress is now 30 per cent of the web

Public data recorded that WordPress’s share of the top 10 million websites had ticked over from 29.9 per cent to 30 per cent. The firm put some context on that data by noting that 50.2 per cent of the world’s websites don’t run a content management system (CMS) at all. That means WordPress has over 60 per cent share among websites that do run a CMS. That’s a dominance few products in any category can claim. It’s also notable that WordPress has nearly ten times the market share of its nearest competitor, Joomla, which has 3.1 per cent share of all websites and 6.3 per cent of the CMS-using population.

Share buybacks work better in theory than in practice

The top 20 companies in terms of buybacks accounted for almost 50 percent of total expenditures.

The main problem with buybacks is that effects of bad decision-making don’t become clear until much later. To paraphrase Jeff Macke, stock buybacks are an allocation decision that has a hypothetical value to shareholders, but a real explicit value to option-holding executives. These people are supposed to be managing companies for the long term but get compensated over the short term. This misalignment if incentives should be a concern. It does seem like those with a vested short-term interest in stock prices put a thumb on the scale away from investments or dividends and towards buybacks.

Diving into the detail, the top culprit was Biotech companies, with 97% of biotech IPOs in the loss making camp. Second place, no prizes for guessing, was Technology companies at 83%. But interestingly enough that left 'all other companies' at 57% - which is actually a record high.

What’s the biggest trade on the New York Stock Exchange? The last one

Last year, 26% of all trading activity on the NYSE’s flagship exchange took place in the last trade of the day, up from 17% in 2012, exchange data shows. Last year, trades at the close accounted for more than 8% of trading volume in S&P 500 stocks, nearly four times what it was in 2004, according to Credit Suisse .

At least $10 billion worth of shares are traded in the NYSE’s closing auction on an average day, with a final tally of stock prices typically listed by 4:05 p.m.

A fund manager such as Vanguard, for instance, might need to buy millions of shares at a time. Making such a big purchase in the middle of the day could dry up supply, causing the price of the stock to jump—bad for Vanguard. By waiting to trade at a time when there are millions of shares being bought and sold, the risk of moving the price is reduced, saving Vanguard money.

Last year, the NYSE collected $87 million—45% of its net revenue from the exchange’s core stocks-trading business—from trading at the close, according to the research firm Equity Research Desk. The NYSE’s maximum fees for trading at the close have gone up 16% over three years, according to regulatory filings.


Is the US stock market overvalued? Depends on which model you ask

The Fed model was valid during the period from 1958 to 2010. Since after 2010 there has been no relationship between the stock’s earnings yield and the bond yield, the Fed model cannot be used to judge whether the US stock market is overvalued. In other words, the Fed model cannot support the high current CAPE ratio on the grounds of the low-rate environment.

The Shiller model is over-simplistic. It is justified only on the grounds that there is an empirical inverse relationship between the CAPE value and the subsequent stock market return over horizons ranging from 10 to 15 years. What is less known about the validity of the Shiller model is that it has forecasting power only for real returns.

The other serious problem with the Shiller model is that it cannot be successfully used to time the market. If the investor believes in the validity of the Shiller model, this investor should buy the stocks in the early 1970s. However, in this case, the investor would be highly disappointed because the stock prices had been decreasing till the early 1980s. Similarly, if the investor uses the Shiller model, this investor would sell stocks in the early 1990s, missing out on huge net gains over the full bull/bear cycle.

Pozen Priorities

“The common practice we found among the highest-ranked performers in our study wasn’t at all what we expected. It wasn’t a better ability to organize or delegate. Instead, top performers mastered selectivity. Whenever they could, they carefully selected which priorities, tasks, meetings, customers, ideas or steps to undertake and which to let go. They then applied intense, targeted effort on those few priorities in order to excel.”


Ironies of luck

If risk is what happens when you make good decisions but end up with a bad outcome, luck is what happens when you make bad or mediocre decisions but end up with a great outcome. They both happen because the world is too complex to allow 100% of your actions dictate 100% of your outcomes. They are mirrored cousins, driven by the same thing: You are one person in a 7 billion player game, and the accidental impact of other people’s actions can be more consequential than your own.

In investing, a huge amount of effort goes into identifying and managing risk. But so little effort goes into doing the same for luck. Investors hire risk managers; no one wants a luck consultant. Companies are required to disclose risks in their annual reports; they’re not required to disclose lucky breaks that may have led to previous success. There are risk-adjusted returns, never luck-adjusted returns.

Here’s why Stephen Hawking never won the Nobel prize in physics

It takes decades to build the scientific equipment to test theoretical discoveries; to put this into context, Einstein’s theory of gravitational waves in space, which he first proposed in the 1920s, was only recently proven in 2016.

One of Hawking’s most important finds was “Hawkings Radiation,” the theory that black holes are not completely black after all, but emit radiations that ultimately cause them to disappear. The issue is, the technology needed to observe this radiation will take years and cost millions before Hawking’s theory can ever be verified.

Company Notes 2017.12.15

VS Industry Q1 FY2018 Results

The lower-than-proportionate growth in profit before tax was largely owing to shift in product mix towards more box-build assembly. Furthermore, there were additional production lines commissioned during the
quarter under review, which resulted in higher operating costs (e.g. setup cost, operators’ salaries etc.) while production output of the new lines have yet to reach optimal level at the time.

Malaysia segment expects the box-build orders from key customers to sustain for the current financial year. On its operations in China, the Group expects improved performance going foward as it has since commenced mass production of new products for key customers in China and this contributes to higher plant utilisation rate.


Kein Hing International Q2 FY2018 Results

…due to the costs incurred for setting up of new production lines, recruitment and development of skilled and semi-skilled workforce at the new factory located in Hai Phong, Vietnam which is yet to achieve the optimal production and sales, higher depreciation charge resulting from new machines invested and the escalating labour costs as a consequence of constraints in labour supply encountered in Malaysia Operation and the wage inflation experienced in Vietnam Operation respectively.


Berjaya Food Q2 FY2018 Results

The results of the Group in the next quarter is expected to be adversely impacted by the one-off losses arising from the disposal of the KRR operations in Indonesia. Other than this one-off exceptional loss, the Group expects Starbucks to maintain its revenue growth momentum to continue contributing positively to the Group. In addition, the management hopes that the operational and menu rationalisation of KRR, being implemented recently, will yield better results for the brand moving forward.


LKL International Q2 FY2018 Resuults

The Group would continue developing the medical devices segment to grow into a significant contributor of group revenue and profitability. At the same time, the Group will be on the lookout to add more high-value medical products to its range to meet customer demand.


Jaycorp Q1 FY2018 Results

A major plant upgrade is due to take place in Jaycorp Green Energy Sdn Bhd (“JGE”) towards the end of 2017. Whilst this will result in the shut-down of operations for 2-3 months, the upgrade should significantly improve the operational efficiency of JGE in the long-term.


Bison Consolidated Q4 FY2017 Results

Operating expenses were higher in line with the bigger outlets network of 356 compared to last year of 294. Mynews had been more aggressive in driving its marketing campaigns and promotions and coupled with the enlarged staff force to support the Group’s expansion contributed to the increased operating expenses by RM17.67 million or 25.8% from last year of RM68.59 million to current year of RM86.21 million. Mynews had achieved its target of opening 70 outlets in the financial year 2017 and with the closing of 8 outlets, ended the year with 356 outlets. Its jointly controlled entity, WH Smith Malaysia Sdn Bhd had also added 3 new outlets during the year and it now has 12 outlets in the Malaysian airports.

The Board remains positive that Mynews is able to deliver profitable results with its on-going efforts to improve products and services offerings and aggressively expanding its foray into ready-to-eat food. Initiatives put in place such as the joint ventures with the Japanese partners to develop the food processing centre is progressing well. The Johor distribution centre is ready for operation pending the final approval by the relevant authorities.


Hiap Teck Venture Q1 FY2018 Results

The decline in steel demand in ASEAN-6 was mainly attributed by the slowing down in the consumption of two biggest steel consuming countries in the region namely Vietnam and Thailand. The decline in steel demand in Thailand and Vietnam are mainly due to destocking activities, slower economic growth and slow uptake in public investment projects.

The continuing efforts by Chinese Government and its plans to cut production capacity will help stabilise the world steel prices which will definitely benefit the local steel industry players.

OldTown gets takeover bid from global coffee maker

OldTown said its shareholders, holding a total stake of 51.45% in the group, have provided irrevocably undertakings to accept the cash offer. These shareholders are Old Town International Sdn Bhd (42.58%), OldTown’s management director Lee Siew Heng (1.34%) and Mawer Investment Management Ltd (7.52%).

“We are deeply honoured that JDE recognises the powerful brand and platform that we have tirelessly built over the past 18 years. We strongly believe JDE is the ideal partner as we continue to serve best-in-class products to our customers. We look forward to drawing on JDE’s deep global expertise and building a highly successful partnership with them. The OldTown team is focused on delivering premium, high-quality products to consumers and we see huge potential in the business. We are excited to work with the OldTown team to rapidly grow the business as part of the broader JDE platform.”


IRB slaps Aeon Credit with extra RM96.82m in tax bill

Aeon Credit said these taxes and penalties were in relation to the IRB varying the loan transaction collaterised by receivables undertaken by the company with a local financial institution to that of a sale of receivables, which the IRB did not specify which provision of the Income Tax Act 1967 in making this variation.

“This is especially so when at all material times, the company had sought professional advice from an independent and reputable audit and tax firm on its accounting and tax treatment and further, the assessments for the years of assessment of 2010 and 2011 are time barred,” it said.

S P Setia Bhd’s unit was slapped with a back tax bill of RM75.38 million last month, but the company said it has grounds to contest the notice. In October, the IRB slapped Cocoaland Holdings Bhd with RM5.89 million in additional taxes and penalties. In September, EcoFirst Consolidated Bhd said it was sued by the IRB over some RM35.47 million in additional taxes and penalties the latter is claiming for. In May, the IRB sought RM80.77 million in additional taxes and penalties from MK Land Holdings Bhd’s wholly-owned subsidiary Saujana Triangle Sdn Bhd, while Magnum Bhd and its wholly-owned subsidiary Magnum Holdings Sdn Bhd were served with notices of assessment for additional taxes and penalties totalling RM476.5 million.

In that same month, Country Heights Holdings Bhd announced that its executive chairman and major shareholder Tan Sri Lee Kim Yew had his fixed deposits of some RM126 million placed in a foreign-owned bank seized by the IRB in relation to RM22.5 million worth of tax liabilities incurred by Country Height’s wholly-owned unit Country Heights Sdn Bhd. The tax liabilities were accrued from the years of assessment of 1997 and 1998. In April this year, the IRB slapped Tenaga Nasional Bhd with an extra RM2.07 billion tax bill for the 2013-2014 tax years. In October 2016, the IRB also went after a subsidiary of Mega First Corp Bhd for RM22.8 million.


AirAsia worth more than meets the eye, group CEO says

AirAsia Bhd has been undermined by analysts as they have not taken into account the group’s growth potential from overseas joint ventures. Fernandes describes the “zero value” given to AirAsia’s Indonesia, Philippines and India businesses by analysts as “bizarre”.

“Our Indian operation could be a 200-plane operation by itself, because of the tourism potential in India and the middle class travelling out of India is massive. If you look at what we have done in China, where 18% of our revenue is coming from there, it shows you the potential. India is a function of how quick we want it to be profitable. It can be profitable now, but we are in a hurry to get to 20 aircraft which will then allow us to fly international [routes], and that is holding back the profitability.”


Loss of Starbucks Korea business ‘a temporary setback’

The loss of the Korean market in 1QFY18 was due to Starbucks Korea deciding to source its store sets — fixtures for the stores — from local manufacturers in order to stick to its timeline for store openings. Federal Furniture has been working on shortening its lead times and that it remains more cost-effective for Starbucks Korea to purchase store sets from Malaysia. As such, Choy foresees contribution from exports to Korea to bounce back within the next six years.

Starbucks Corp is Federal Furniture’s main customer in its manufacturing division — which makes modular caseworks, shop fixtures, and fitting and furniture for corporate customers — and typically accounts for about 90% of the division’s total sales.

The division currently serves Starbucks’ Asia-Pacific market, which comprises Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Cambodia, Vietnam, Australia and India, according to the group’s Annual Report 2017. The division is Starbucks’ first approved caseworks vendor outside the US, and has been the only approved caseworks vendor for its Asia-Pacific market for the past 17 years.

Choy shared that the supply of store sets to Starbucks India will be fully produced in that country by April 2018, as the 76% import duty imposed by Indian regulators has become too prohibitive to continue shipping materials from Malaysia. As such, the group is undertaking strategic outsourcing of its fixtures there while it finalises the setting-up of a legal entity in Bangalore to commence operations there. “Four out of 12 stores that have confirmed to be opened in our financial year 2018 (ending June 30, 2018) will use casework that has been manufactured there,” Choy said. The asset-light model Federal Furniture is deploying in India may be used for its planned entry as Starbucks’ fourth vendor in China.


U Mobile turns Ebitda-positive as it plans for IPO after GE14

“We are already Ebitda positive at this stage, and listing will come after election. Because if we go for listing, we got to look at the market, and the market at this stage is very uncertain. With that uncertainty, there is this overhang, so you don’t see a lot of activities in the market. Next year, the market is going to be as tough as this year, generally retail sentiment is still soft, despite what the GDP (gross domestic product) number says, the retail side is still very soft. From our case, hopefully after the election, whatever negative overhang will be lifted, and that should improve people’s sentiment. Hopefully, that will translate into higher spending.”

“Competition has always been intense, but [industry-wide] Ebitda margin is still largely the same. Next year’s capital expenditure (capex) will be at least RM1 billion. This year’s is already RM1 billion.”

Malaysia moving towards cashless society

Governor Tan Sri Muhammad Ibrahim said effective July 1, 2018 the instant transfer fee of 50 sen will be waived for up to RM5,000 per transaction by individuals and small medium enterprises (SMEs). However, the cheque fee would be increased from 50 sen to RM1.00, beginning Jan 2, 2021 to reflect the higher processing cost.

To encourage the use of the QR code payment, Bank Negara has issued an Interoperable Credit Transfer Framework (ICTF). “For the first time in our history, customers of banks and non-banks will soon be able to transfer funds across the network by just referring to the mobile phone number, identification number or QR code,” he said.