The large scale and low cost of Chinese brainpower is another game changer. Suddenly thousands of engineers can be ramped up in a matter of days. And this phenomenon is starting to ripple through industry after industry. What is the impact on the pharmaceutical industry if companies can now access tens of thousands of scientists cheaply? If your competitor is opening a research and development center in China with 10,000 technical specialists, how big of a problem is that for you? Chinese brainpower is starting to impact many industries – often in unexpected ways.”
India’s estimated domestic consumption growth of 12 percent y-o-y through 2025 is forecast at more than double the global average of 5 percent — poised to triple to $4 trillion by 2025.
India will have the largest middle class globally by 2027. Currently, only 5% (27 million) of the 519 million strong workforce is classified as “urban middle,” earning more than $11,000 per year.
A structural shift of household savings into equities is helping propel Indian stock markets. A Morgan Stanley analysis concludes that domestic equity savings are on-track to rise by $525 billion over the next decade. The government is also taking steps to increase public-equity exposure.
Our chief economic problem right now isn’t that the robots are taking our jobs, it’s that the robots are slacking off. We suffer from slow productivity growth; the symptoms are not lay-offs but slow-growing economies and stagnant wages.
…Imagine an economy that was the exact opposite of one where the robots took over, and it would look very much like ours.
…productivity growth stalled before the financial crisis, not afterwards: the promised benefits of the IT revolution petered out by around 2006.
Younger investors haven’t yet seen a Capital Expenditure bubble. What went in the mid-aught’s was a debt and real estate bubble and what’s going on now is a buyback bubble. (Yes, everything is a bubble).
But in the mid- to late 1990’s, we had the CapEx bubble to end all CapEx bubbles (involving computers and wireless telephony), and it was good for the economy (for awhile). The 1950’s featured an infrastructure CapEx bubble (the Interstate Highway System), the 1960’s had its “Space Age” CapEx bubble and the late 1800’s enjoyed a railroad CapEx bubble.
These spending sprees were unlike the debt bubble of the 2003-2007 period in that, when the dust settled, at the very least they had left something useful behind (roads, rails, fiber optics, jets and rocket technologies). The last bubble we had only left behind unpaid loans and financial losses.
“If I look at the latest generation of microprocessors, this year, performance only went up by 3%.”
While Intel’s microprocessor is broadly useful, running everything from scientific computing to spreadsheets, the TPU focuses on a specific problem such as speech recognition so it has power where it counts. It has 3.5 times as much memory as a comparable Intel part in a chip half the size. “We threw out a lot of stuff that was not needed. Instead of the Honda for everyone, we are making these Formula One race cars for some things.”
…the TPU went from sketch to finished chip in just 15 months whereas the latest Intel processors take years to develop. “We are at a paradigm shift in computing architecture. This is a big revolution in terms of the technology approach. Intel is working for two years to squeeze out 10% improvements in performance, and this can get you 10 times the performance, while being less expensive than Intel’s most complex parts.”
…the company was also learning how to cut its losses and play to its strengths. In 2013, Tencent gave up on its floundering search business, turned it over to a competitor, Sogou Inc., and invested $448 million in Sogou instead. The following year it sold its equally unsuccessful e-commerce initiative to JD.com Inc. and invested $214 million in JD for a 15 percent stake. Before these deals, Tencent “was involved in everything.” After the deals, “it only focused on what it did best and entrusted other sectors to partners.” Zhang gives much of the credit for these moves to Lau. “Martin is first and foremost a great business analyst. He knows what wars to fight.”
“It’s a little bit like the Godfather Don Corleone saying, ‘I’m going to make you an offer you can’t refuse.’ If you don’t take their money, and they invest in a competitor, it can be deadly.”
The government, for its part, hasn’t even settled on what Bitcoin is. The Internal Revenue Service considers it an asset; the Commodity Futures Trading Commission says it’s a commodity; and Treasury Department regulators have described it as a “virtual currency.” Fed Chair Janet Yellen has said the agency has no authority to oversee Bitcoin, but has encouraged central bankers to study it.
“…half of the people in the group are looking for a solution; the other half are there uniquely to obstruct progress.”
1. Has management been forthcoming about competitive challenges or do they downplay the threat of new entrants?
2. Does management have the right financial incentives in place or has the board set up low hurdles to make sure large bonuses are realized, regardless of performance?
3. Does management know what the company’s advantages are and have plans in place to extend and strengthen those advantages?
4. Does management have meaningful personal ownership in the business (and thus have skin in the game) or are they akin to mercenaries?
5. Does management have a track record of sacrificing short-term results for long-term results or do they seem to play the quarterly earnings game?
Incentives are the strongest force in the world. They cause otherwise good people to do awful things, and vice versa. They’re also the most misunderstood and counterintuitive force in business. Brent Beshore: “I want to know what motivates people. The problem is not that they won’t tell me, because they will. The problem is that none of us know the truth, even about ourselves. The only thing to do is watch someone over a very long period of time and try to piece it together.”
There are five sources of edge: 1) Learn faster than your competition, 2) empathize with stakeholders more than your competition, 3) communicate more effectively than your competition, 4) be willing to fail more than your competition, and 5) wait longer than your competition.